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Dictionaries and encyclopedias

edited by Daniele Didero

Dictionaries and encyclopedias - Home Page



On-line consultable works

  This page provides a critical selection of links to various encyclopedias and dictionaries of philosophy and other reference materials that may be of interest to philosophers.
Comments and suggestions are very welcome.


1.     Philosophical encyclopedias

o        General works

o        Works on specific subjects

o        Works on specific authors

2.     Other encyclopedical works

o        Science and Technology

o        Religion

o        Art and literature

o        Politics

3.     Dictionaries


- Philosophical encyclopedias -


       - General works -

FOLDOP - Free On-Line Dictionary of Philosophy

Edited by Luciano Floridi and Gian Paolo Terravecchia, it is the on-line dictionary of philosophy from SWIF. It offers visitors an internal search engine.

Enciclopedia Multimediale delle Scienze Filosofiche

From "RAI" (the Italian public television). This site (it's in Italian) is a well-done informative service on philosophy and humanities; it works in collaboration with some cultural transmissions ("Il Grillo", "Aforismi", "Questioni di filosofia").

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Edited by Edward N. Zalta (see the site of The Metaphysics Research Lab at the Center for the Study of Language and Information of Stanford University). This is the first dynamic encyclopedia, in which articles are constantly updated by different experts. It offers visitors a table of contents.

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Edited by James Fieser (University of Tennessee at Martin). It offers visitors a table of contents, an index of keywords and a table of historical evolution of Western Philosophy; there are also a lot of consultable and downloadable works of different philosophers.


It offers visitors free access to over 50 reference titles containing more than 500,000 entries on Philosophy, Art, Music, English Literature etc. (you can see an index of these titles at http://www.xrefer.com/allbooks.jsp).


It is the online version of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. It deals with philosophy (history of philosophy, metaphysics, epistemology and so on), history, arts, science etc.; for each subject, it offers visitors a lot of links not only to the articles of the Encyclopaedia, but also to external sites. There is also an excellent search engine.

Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names

Edited by Garth Kemerling. This dictionary suggests definitions of many terms of Western Philosophy and introduces to some important philosophers; there are a lot of internal and external links. It offers visitors a table of contents.

A Philosophical Glossary

From Justin Leiber (University of Houston). This glossary deals with some philosophical (especially logical) concepts.

Mostly Modern Philosophical Glossary

From Larry Hauser. It provides concise definitions of some philosophical terms.

Meta-Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Edited by Andrew Chrucky. This site provides, for a great number of philosophical terms, some links to other on-line consultable works in which they have been introduced.

Bio-bibliographical Directory to Writers on the Theory, History, and Culture of Science and the Humanities

Edited by Hartmut Krech (University of Bremen). This is a bibliographical guide to the works of over 760 writers, of different historical periods and various doctrines (not only philosophers); the entries are arranged alphabetically.

Dictionary of Sorts

Edited by Robert Berman, this site deals with some philosophical terms, mostly in ethics and epistemology.

The Philosophical Lexicon

This is a humorous work, edited by Daniel Dennett (Tufts University, Massachusetts). It is a satirical glossary of alternative definitions for philosophical personalities and terms. E.g., a "bertrand" is "(1) A state of profound abstraction of mind and spirit; a trance. «He went into a bertrand and began to babble about the class of all classes which are not member of themselves» (2) The state of a person who suffers from delusions (e.g. as of one who doubts that, when he sees a table, he sees a table), or has visions (e.g. of the present King of France)".

Importance of Philosophy – Philosophy Dictionary

Edited by Jeff Landauer and Joseph Rowlands, this site provides short definitions (with genus and differentia) for a great number of philosophical terms; there are also some links to more detailed articles.

AllRefer – Philosophy Encyclopedia

It’s the philosophical encyclopedia (with articles on terms and concepts as well as on biographies) of AllRefer. AllRefer is an educational resource which provides a comprehensive collection of reference, encyclopedia, health, gazetteer, country studies, and educational databases; includes more than 150,000 articles on topics covered under health, history, science, people, places, arts, sports, plants, animals, technology, philosophy, religion, literature, and more.




       - Works on specific subjects -

Ethics Updates

Edited by Lawrence M. Hinman (University of San Diego). This site deals with some problems of ethical theory (such as ethical relativism, ethics and religion, ethical utilitarianism, and so on) and of applied ethics (bioethics, etc.); there is also a glossary of ethical terminology.

Glossary of Ethical Terms

Edited by the Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science (Case Western Reserve University). This glossary deals with terminology of ethics and of philosophy of law (terms such as "administrative law", "affirmative action", "civil rights", an so on).

Glossary of First-Order Logic

From Peter Suber (Earlham College, Richmond). It deals with terminology and procedures of truth-functional propositional logic and first-order predicate logic.

Neutrosophy. Neutrosophic probability, set and logic

Edited by Florentin Smarandache. This site is an introduction to the "Neutrosophy", which is, according to the author, "a new branch of philosophy which studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra". There are also consultable texts on neutrosophic method, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic set and neutrosophic logic.

Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind

Edited by Chris Eliasmith (Washington University, St. Louis). It deals with the subject very accurately, and offers visitors lots of links to other on-line consultable works; there is an internal search engine.

Online papers on consciousness

Edited by David Chalmers (University of Arizona). It offers visitors over 700 links to online consultable papers on consciousness and related topics (Metaphysics of consciousness, Materialism and dualism, Panpsychism, Consciousness and artificial intelligence, Godel's theorem and AI, Animal consciousness, and so on).

Glossaries and Concept Construction in Philosophy of History

From the Philosophy of History Archive (Novosibirskij Gosudarstvjennyj Univjersitjet, Russia). There are two consultable glossaries in this site: "Some macrohistorical concepts", from Nikolay S. Rozov, and "Glossary of civilizational Worldviews", from D. Richardson.

Chinese Philosophy

Edited by Chad Hansen (University of Hong Kong). There are articles on five essential concepts of Chinese Philosophy (Tao, You-wu, Shi-fei, Wu-wei, Qing), and a few other articles on more general topics (Chinese Philosophy of language, Chinese Philosophy of mind, etc.).

The Skeptic's Dictionary

From Robert T. Carroll. There are over 300 skeptical articles on occultism, supernatural, etc.; it offers visitors an internal search engine.

Online Glossary of Philosophy of Computing and Information

Edited by Luciano Floridi. It is the glossary of technical terms of the Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy for Computing and Information; it is freely available, in .pdf. format.



       - Works on specific authors -

The Window - Philosophers

Edited by Christopher Marvin (Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut). It is a listing of some of the major contributors to modern and ancient thought; there is also a specific page on Islamic thinkers.

Glossary of Hegelian Terms

From Andy Blunden. This site deals with a lot of essential Hegelian concepts; there are also a large number of links to other on-line consultable articles.

Glossary-Guide for Translating Husserl

Edited by Antonio Zirion Quijano (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México). It wants to help philosophers to translate Husserl's terminology from German into English and Spanish.

Kant Glossary

From Andrew Carpenter (Antioch College, Ohaio). This site deals with a lot of technical Kantian terms.

Glossary of Kant's Technical Terms

From Steve Palmquist. Its aim is to propose simple, concise definitions of some essential Kantian terms.

Presocratic Philosophers

Edited by Giannis Stamatellos. This site wants to introduce to the thought of Presocratic Philosophers, from Thales to Democritus; however, the English version of the site (there's also a Greek version) is still under construction, and there are only the pages devoted to Thales and Heraclitus.

Jean-Paul Sartre Summary

This page, prepared by Victor Daniels (California State University, Sonoma) for his Seminar in Humanistic and Existential Psychology, is a concise introduction to some important concepts of Sartre's terminology.

History of Western Philosophy from 1492 to 1776

Edited by Bill Uzgalis (Oregon State University). The author deals with the "Era of the Great Voyages", which is the historical period from 1492 to 1776: these "great voyages" were voyages of the sailors and voyages in the sphere of learning and ideas as well. Therefore, this web-site offers visitors four sections devoted to history and philosophy: "Stories and Themes", "Timeline", "Parts of Philosophy" and "Philosophers" (with links to pages on some selected philosophers of this period, such as Descartes, Malebranche, Hume and many others).

Women Philosophers of the 17th and 18th Centuries

Edited by Peter Suber (Earlham College, Richmond), this site is a biographical guide to the works of some important women philosophers of the 17th and 18th Centuries (Elisabeth of Bohemia, Margaret Cavendish, Mary Wollstonecraft etc.).


- Other encyclopedical works -


       - Science and Technology -

PRIME - Platonic Realms Interactive Mathematics Encyclopedia

From Math Academy Online. This is a well-done mathematics encyclopedia, with a lot of links to internal and external articles. It also offers visitors a great number of historical and biographical entries.

Glossary of Bioethics

Edited by Darryl R. J. Macer (Eubios Ethics Institute). This glossary aims at giving the scientific basis for discussion upon bioethical questions.

Cognitive Science Dictionary

From Michael R.W. Dawson and David A. Medler (University of Alberta). This site, devoted to scientific studies of mind and consciousness, offers visitors a table of contents and an internal search engine.


From Thomas B. Cross (Cross Market Management Company), TECHtionary is the world’s first animated dictionary on telecommunications, data networking and internet technology.


By the Institute for Learning and Research Technology of the University of Bristol. The Social Science Information Gateway (SOSIG) is a freely available Internet service which aims to provide a trusted source of selected, high quality Internet information for students, academics, researchers and practitioners in the social sciences, business and law. It is part of the Resource Discovery Network (RDN).




       - Religion -

Glossary of Religious Terms

Edited by the "Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance". Its goal is to clarify some religious terms, in order to prevent misunderstandings and intolerance among different religions.

The Catholic Encyclopedia

From New Advent. This is the on-line version of The Catholic Encyclopedia: its aim is to present the Catholic contributions in science, philosophy, literature, and so on; there is a table of contents.

Christian Classics Ethereal Library

It is a well-done site, edited by the Christian Classics Ethereal Library (at Wheaton College): there are links to lots of downloadable works of Christian literature (S. Augustine, S. Thomas Aquinas, Tolstoy, etc.); there are also some consultable biblical dictionaries.

Jewish Encyclopedia

This website contains the complete contents of the 12-volume Jewish Encyclopedia, which was originally published between 1901-1906. The Jewish Encyclopedia, which recently became part of the public domain, contains over 15,000 articles and illustrations.

Lexicon of Confucianism

Edited by Lao Sze-kwang (Chinese University of Hong Kong). This site's aim is to introduce to Confucianism; there are various searching options.

Glossary of Buddhist Terms

From Paul Trafford. This is a concise glossary of Buddhist terminology.

Mysticism in World Religions

From Deb Platt, this site explores the mystical traditions of six religions (Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism) by comparing and contrasting quotations drawn from their respective literatures. There is also a glossary of mystical terms for each one of these religions.

Dictionary of Occult Words

This is a online book of terms used by occult, pagan, spiritual, and metaphysical people in speech and writing. Definitions include links and illustrations.



       - Art and literature -

Perseus Project

This is a well-done site, which offers visitors a lot of reference materials on ancient Greek civilization and culture; there are a general encyclopedia, a very careful Greek lexicon, an atlas of Greek world, an historical guide (with many cross-references), and so on.

ArtLex - dictionary of visual art

Edited by Michael Delahunt. This site, enriched with a lot of pictures and a great number of links to other on-line consultable works, deals with over 2800 terms of visual art; it offers visitors a table of contents.

Words of Art

From Robert J. Belton (Department of Fine Arts at Okanagan University College). This site analyses many terms of visual art and some philosophical concepts (it ranges from "column" to "Absolute"), with a large number of internal links. It offers visitors a table of contents.

English-Spanish Library and Information Studies Dictionary

This is a compilation of the terminology, both general and specific, that students and professionals generally encounter when reading library and information literature.



       - Politics -

Encyclopedia of Trotskyism On-Line

From the Marxists Internet Archive, it is an On-Line Resource Center for the Study of the International Trotskyist Movement, with a lot of internal and external links to articles and documents.


- Dictionaries -


Free Online Dictionary and Thesaurus

English, Medical, Legal, and Computer Dictionaries, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, a Literature Reference Library, and a Search Engine all in one.

The LOGOS Homepage

It is an interactive dictionary, with over 7.500.000 constantly updated words in several languages.

A Web of On-line Dictionaries

From Robert Beard (Bucknell University, Lewisburg). This site offers 800 on-line consultable dictionaries in 150 languages.

Yahoo! Reference Dictionaries Language

For your further searches, you can check this site.


email.gif (300 bytes)Please send your remarks on these pages to: Daniele Didero (ddider@iol.it)


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